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Principals Diary

Impress your management with the task list in principals diary. An Exclusive Diary especially designed for Principals / Directors / Head of Schools / Coordinators / HOD's

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November 2008
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  1. Laboratory Safety guidelines

    by

    Laboratory Safety Guidelines

     

     Everyone must be responsible for everyone else in lab.  No horse-play is ever allowed.  Lack of pre-lab preparation is the biggest problem related to lab safety.  If you or your group members are unprepared for lab you will waist time and have a good chance of making mistakes.

     

    Safety Glasses must be worn any time you are in lab.

    Contact lenses should NOT be worn in lab.

    It is almost impossible to remove contacts after chemicals have been splashed into the eyes.

    Chemicals trapped under contacts will damage the eye even more than normal.

    The plastic used for some types of contact lenses is permeable to vapors found in the laboratory.  If these vapors are trapped behind the lens, extensive irritation may occur.

     

    Long hair, bulky clothing, rings, watches, dangling jewelry are dangerous in lab.

     

    Accidents Can Happen:  Remain calm and report it immediately.

     

    Broken Glass:

    Stop and report it immediately.  Do not move until your teacher says it is safe to do so.  There may be small slivers of glass that you do no notice.

    Your teacher will collect the broken glass, not you.  More minor cuts occur after this type of accident than during it.

    Chemical spills are often involved with glass breakage.  Follow those rules if it occurs.

     

    Cuts and Scrapes:

    Report the situation to the teacher and let him help the injured person.

    There is always a possibility of infection.  For this reason you should report any cut or scrape, even if there is no visible blood.

    Do not come into contact with another’s person’s blood.

    If there is blood at any lab station, everyone is to turn off all burners and move to your seat in the classroom area until told it is safe to return to the lab.

     

    Chemical Spills:

    Depending on the chemical spilled, we might just have to clean it up or we might have a more dangerous situation.

    The most potentially dangerous chemicals used in our lab are corrosive acids and bases.  Even though you will be using chemicals that have been diluted, you should always treat acids and bases with care.

    You are to treat all spills as DANGEROUS.

    Stay where you are and let your teacher advise you about what to do.

    We will discuss methods for treating different types of spills in class.

    Remember that broken glass often occurs along with chemical spills.  Be prepared to follow those guidelines as well.

    Fire:

    Bunsen burners:  if a malfunction occurs, turn off the burner and notify your teacher.

    When you are not actively heating something – turn the burner off.

    Someone in your group must always be watching the flame (the watcher of the flame!)

    If a paper fire occurs, push the paper into the lab sink and turn on the water.

    Clothing or Hair:  Don’t panic:  If you are involved, stay where you are – help is coming.  Your partners should get the fire blanket.  Everyone else should stay away.

    The teacher is the only authorized person to use the fire extinguisher.

     

     

    Lab Safety Equipment

     

    Eye Wash Station:

    The station should only be used if chemicals come in contact with the eyes.

    Eyelids have to be forcibly opened to ensure effective washing behind the eyelid.

    Be sure to wash from the nose out to the ear.  This will avoid washing chemicals back into the eye or into an unaffected eye.

    Flood eyes and eyelids with water for a minimum of 15 minutes.

    Contacts should not be worn during labs.  If you are wearing them when involved with an accident, remove them as soon as possible to rinse eyes of any harmful chemicals.

    After the teacher determines that the eyes are completely flushed, both of the victim’s eyes should be covered with a clean or sterile gauze.

     

    Safety Shower:

    It provides an effective means of treatment in the event that large amounts of chemicals are spilled or splashed onto the skin or clothing.

    As long as the handle is pulled down, the safety shower will supply a continuous stream of water to cover the entire body.

    Individuals should remove clothing, including shoes and jewelry, while under an operating shower.

     

    Fire Blanket:

    Fire blankets are not the best means to extinguish a fire.  They may be used to extinguish clothing that is burning, but should never be used on any other type of fire.

    Fire blankets are a good means to keep shock victims warm or to cover large chemical spills.

     

    Fire Extinguisher:

    Fire extinguishers are classified according to a particular fire type and are given the same letter and symbol classification as that of the fire.

    Type A – combustible wood, cloth, paper, rubber,  and plastics.

    Type B –  flammable liquids, oil, grease, and paint thinners.

    Type C –  energized electrical equipment

    Type D –  combustible metals (Mg, Ti, Na, Li, K)

    Multipurpose Extinguishers are effective against types A, B, and C fires

    To effectively operate an extinguisher, think P-A-S-S

    P —  pull the pin

    A– aim the hose a the base of the fire

    S – squeeze the handle

    S – sweep the hose back and forth

       

    Never use water on a Type B fire.  These liquids float on water and, thus, water can spread the burning liquid.  Water makes hot grease splatter, and can result in burns.  Cover the burning grease with sand, baking soda, or with the metal lid of the frying pan.

    Never use water on a Type C fire.  Water can cause a severe electric shock.

     

    Being Prepared Checklist for school:

    Know all exits.

    Practice drills seriously.

    Know locations of safety equipment and extinguishers.

    Report any safety hazards to the teacher.

    Be sure smoke detectors work.

     

    Common Sense Guidelines:

    Stay calm.  Help others to stay calm.

    Notify a teacher immediately.

    At home, call the fire department as quickly as possible without endangering your escape from the fire.  You may have to call from outside.

    Avoid smoke-filled passageways.  If you must pass through a smoke-filled area, crawl on hands an knees.  If possible, wrap a wet towel around your nose and mouth.

    Close doors when leaving an area.  Never open a door that is hot to the touch.

    If your clothes do catch fire, DO NOT RUN.  Roll on the floor or wrap yourself in a fire blanket or rug.

     

    Fire Hazard Checklist:

    Frayed electric cord, electric cords under rugs, near heat sources

    Many appliances plugged into one outlet

    Combustibles (paper, drapes) near heat source

    Oil-soaked rags in open container

    Flammable liquids in open container

    Lit cigarettes dumped into waste basket or down garbage chute

    Using flammable liquid in unventilated areas

    Using gasoline to start fires

    Adding starter fluid to hot coals

    Smoking in bed

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    General Chemistry Lab Safety

    The chemistry laboratory can be a place of discovery and learning. However, by the very nature of laboratory work, it can be a place of danger if proper common-sense precautions aren’t taken. While every effort has been made to eliminate the use of explosive, highly toxic, and carcinogenic substances from the experiments which you will perform, there is a certain unavoidable hazard associated with the use of a variety of chemicals and glassware. You are expected to learn and adhere to the following general safety guidelines to ensure a safe laboratory environment for both yourself and the people you may be working near. Additional safety precautions will be announced in class prior to experiments where a potential danger exists. Students who fail to follow all safety rules may be asked to leave the lab or suffer grading penalties.

    Attire

    1. Safety goggles must be worn at all times while in the laboratory. This rule must be followed whether you are actually working on an experiment or simply writing in your lab notebook. You must wear safety goggles provided by the chemistry department.
    2. Contact lenses are not allowed. Even when worn under safety goggles, various fumes may accumulate under the lens and cause serious injuries or blindness.
    3. Closed toe shoes and long pants must be worn in the lab. Sandals and shorts are not allowed.
    4. Long hair must be tied back when using open flames.

    Conduct

    1. Eating, drinking, and smoking are strictly prohibited in the laboratory.
    2. No unauthorized experiments are to be performed. If you are curious about trying a procedure not covered in the experimental procedure, consult with your laboratory instructor.
    3. Never taste anything. Never directly smell the source of any vapor or gas; instead by means of your cupped hand, waft a small sample to your nose. Do not inhale these vapors but take in only enough to detect an odor if one exists.
    4. Coats, backpacks, etc., should not be left on the lab benches and stools. There is a hook rack along the back wall at either end of the lab. There are coat racks just inside the each entrance to the balance room at the back of the lab. Beware that lab chemicals can destroy personal possessions.
    5. Always wash your hands before leaving lab.
    6. Learn where the safety and first-aid equipment is located. This includes fire extinguishers, fire blankets, and eye-wash stations.
    7. Notify the instructor immediately in case of an accident.

    Proper Handling of Chemicals and Equipment

    1. Consider all chemicals to be hazardous unless you are instructed otherwise. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are available in lab for all chemicals in use. These will inform you of any hazards and precautions of which you should be aware.
    2. Know what chemicals you are using. Carefully read the label twice before taking anything from a bottle. Chemicals in the lab are marked with NFPA hazardous materials diamond labels. Learn how to interpret these labels.
    3. Excess reagents are never to be returned to stock bottles. If you take too much, dispose of the excess.
    4. Many common reagents, for example, alcohols and acetone, are highly flammable. Do not use them anywhere near open flames.
    5. Always pour acids into water. If you pour water into acid, the heat of reaction will cause the water to explode into steam, sometimes violently, and the acid will splatter.
    6. If chemicals come into contact with your skin or eyes, flush immediately with copious amounts of water and consult with your instructor.
    7. Never point a test tube or any vessel that you are heating at yourself or your neighbor–it may erupt like a geyser.
    8. Dispose of chemicals properly. Waste containers will be provided and their use will be explained by your TA. Unless you are explicitly told otherwise, assume that only water may be put in the lab sinks.
    9. Clean up all broken glassware immediately and dispose of the broken glass properly.
    10. Contact the stockroom for clean-up of mercury spills.
    11. Never leave burners unattended. Turn them off whenever you leave your workstation. Be sure that the gas is shut off at the bench rack when you leave the lab.
    12. Beware of hot glass–it looks exactly like cold glass.

    Vishal Jain / J.K.Singh

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