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Principals Diary

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March 2019
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  1. Teacher Glossary of Terms in Teaching


    Teacher Glossary of Terms in Teaching

    I have compiled a list of over 300 terms that are commonly used in the teaching profession.  

    Access; Accessibility
    Arrangements provided to ensure the opportunity for individuals to participate in an institution; often refers to the Arrangements offered to students with disabilities to ensure maximum opportunity.

    Processes used to demonstrate that institutions and individuals have fulfilled their obligations.

    Formal procedure of gaining certification for a particular program or institution.

    Action learning set
    Cooperative learning activity where small groups of students work to identify what action should be taken to address a real world problem.



    Action plan
    Specific proposal developed by a learner, teacher or institution to address problems or difficulties or meet a desired goal.

    Action research
    A research methodology designed to have subjects, in particular teachers, to investigate an element of a particular activity which the aim of determining whether the changes can produce effective and positive improvements, especially student learning.

    Activation of prior knowledge
    A constructivist instructional strategy aimed at having students access their own prior knowledge in order to develop meaning by combining new information with their own previous knowledge.

    Active learning methods
    Learning methods that focus on ensure learners play and active role in the process of learning instead of passively receiving information.

    Added value
    Additional benefit gained by the use of specific factors in teaching, learning or administration activities.

    Adult and continuing education
    Education geared to the needs of mature students, especially during their working lives.

    Adult learning
    Formal education geared to individuals classified as adults, typically over the age of 18; includes education provided by institutions of higher education but may also include informal training of workers or others in the development of a specific skill set or knowledge.

    Aesthetic Response
    An affective or emotional response a person has to material, which is based on the individual’s background knowledge, attitudes, and experiences.

    Affective domain
    The emotional aspect of experience and learning.

    Annotated bibliographies
    Bibliographies that include a summary description of the works listed.

    Accreditation of Prior (Experiential) Learning (AP(E)L)
    Mechanism for recognizing and giving credit for knowledge and skills gained in ways other than traditional courses such as work or life experiences; typically it is evaluated by the completion of a portfolio.

    Aptitude test
    Standardized test designed to assess an individual’s potential to acquire and/or develop knowledge or skills.

    A formalized evaluation, typically a face-to-face meeting, of an individual’s or learner’s progress and performance intending to identify strengths and weakness and improve future performance..

    The process of evaluating and measure an individuals achievement; typically done with assessment tools such as assignments or examinations.

    Assignment return sheets
    Forms used to provide written comments regarding assignments completed by students.

    Asynchronous communication
    Communication that takes place either when communication between participants occurs at different times. Participants often are also in different locations. Contrasted with synchronous communication.


    This is a measure of the amount of data that can be transmitted over communication or network lines via the Internet. The higher the bandwidth, the great the amount of information that can be transmissed.

    A psychological theory that claims all mental states can be reduced to statements of observable behaviors. In learning theory, the claim is all learning is based on a stimulus-response relationship.

    The process for identifying standards to use in comparison of practices, activities, institutions or equipment; standards my be used to identify minimal levels or for determining relative performances for comparison of subjects.

    Errors in statistical sampling or testing that are by favoring some factors over others. Bias reduces the overall validity of research. See also: Halo effect, Reliability, Validity



    A listing of works used and/or considered by an author in the preparation of a work.

    Possessing knowledge of two languages; typically it refers to a person who can speak and write two languages.

    Blended learning
    An educational formation the integrates elearning techniques including online delivery of materials through web pages, discussion boards and/or email with traditional teaching methods including lectures, in-person discussions, seminars, or tutorials.

    Bloom`s taxonomy
    A heirachical framework of learing based on three domains – the cognitive, affective and psychomotor; in the cognitive domain there are six levels of knowledge: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. In the affective domain there are five levels: receiving phenomenon, responding to phenomenon, valuing, organizing values, and internalizing values. In the psychomotor domain there are seven levels: perception, readiness to act, guided response, mechanism, complex overt action, adaptation, and origination (the psychomotor levels where not originally completed by Bloom).

    Typically used in writing, but is any activity where individuals general ideas related to a topic or task; done in either groups or individually with no restriction on quality of ideas. Once ideas are generation, they are they evaluated and a decision about which to pursue is made.

    The program that allows a person to view pictures, text, animations, images, or films over the World Wide Web; it is short of web browser.Browsers include Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, Netscap’s Navigator, and Mozilla’s Firefox.

    Bulletin board
    Electronic version of a noticeboard; bulletin board programs allow people to leave, read and response to messages and are typically used for interest groups on specific topics and in distance learning courses.


    Case study
    An investigation format focusing on a specific group, setting, and time period with the aim of studying and clarifying a unique feature(s) of the situation.

    Chat room
    A virtual environment that allows people to communicate instantaneously over the Internet; typically the communications are sent by typing messages that are relayed to all people in the chat room, but some chat rooms allow communication via voice or video.

    Class exercises
    Learning exercises or problems students complete during regular classroom or laboratory sessions under the supervision of an instructor.

    Mental abilities of knowing, perceiving, and understanding.



    Cognitive process
    Mental process such as knowing, perceiving, and understanding.

    Cognitive domain
    The mental aspect of experience and learning (knowing, understanding, etc.).

    Cognitive model of learning
    Learning models based on the theory that acquisition of new knowledge and skills rests on the existence and development of mental cognitive structures.

    Collaborative learning
    An instructional method that emphasizes students working together in small groups to complete a task or reach a common goal; in some cases students may be responsible for each other’s learning

    An individual’s abilities as they relate to knowledge, understanding, and skills; see also minimal competence.

    Ability to find and construct meaning from texts.

    Computer assisted learning
    An instructional format where the computer supplements the instructions, exercises, information and/or feedback provided by an instructor.

    Computer-based learning
    An instructional format where the computer provides instructions, exercises, information and feedback in place of an instructor.

    Computer conferencing
    A format for holding discussions by participants in different places by connecting through computer networks to transmit messages that are either text, audio, and or visual. This can be asynchronous using email or a listserver or synchronous using conferencing software.

    Computer marked assignments (CMAs)
    Assignments that are evaluated and assessed by use of a computer; typical examples are standardize placement tests.

    Concept mapping
    A learning strategy used to aid students in organizing information; concept maps take a variety of forms suited to the type of information and activity.

    A theory learning that claims people learn by constructing knowledge through social interactions with others.

    Content developer
    Individual who creates and prepares materials used in a learning environment; materials can be in print of electronic format.

    The setting where teaching and learning occur; identifying context involves noting social, geographical, political, and other factors related to the learning environment.

    Continuing professional development (CDP)
    Opportunities for individuals to increase their current level of knowledge and skills through coursework or other means in order to improve their employment.

    Continuous assessment
    Ongoing evaluation of work during a course in which the scores earned count toward the final evaluation.

    Constructed response
    Assessment based on written material constructed by the student.

    Convergent assessment
    Assessment based on emphasizing the ability of the students to focus upon a clearly defined task; opposed to divergent assessment.

    Cooperative learning
    Learning format the requires the cooperation of a small number of students who work towards the completion of a given task; each student is responsible for a part of the task, and the entire task cannot be completed without all the learners finishing their portion of the task.

    Aid provided by a staff member or peer (student) in relation to an educational, personal, or social problem.

    Software and other computer-based materials developed for use in a course.

    Creative thinking
    Thought processes designed to encourage originality in the development and elaboration of original and diverse ideas.

    Criterion referencing
    Assessment based on predefined criteria; opposed to norm referencing.

    Critical incident
    An event that triggers reflective self-examination and critical assessment of the event.

    Critical thinking
    Evaluating claims, assumptions, and implications of a particular point of view without simply accepting them as facts

    Broadly understood as the subjects and materials to be taught by an educational institution; typically it is listed as a set of subjects, but also may include the learning experiences, skills, and abilities students are expected to learn.

    Curriculum mapping
    A process for organizing data reflecting the primary knowledge, skills, and assesments related to a subject area and used to facilitate communication and instruction.


    Final date for the submission of assignment or other required work.

    Deep learning
    Learning aimed at having students extract principles and underlying meanings in order to integrate them with previously acquired knowledge; contrast with surface learning.

    Diagnostic test
    Examination used to determine students current level of knowledge or skill to identify what course level they should be placed in or whether remediation is required.

    Digital Versatile Disk (DVD)
    High capacity computer disk the size of a CD-ROM but has a significantly higher storage capacity; typically used for storing movies.



    Disadvantaged students
    Students who have not had the same opportunities as other students entering a course of study and may need special Arrangements or additional assistance to prepare them for study; disadvantages may be due to physical or emotional problems or deficiencies caused by inequities in social conditions.

    Extensive essay generally required at the completion of a doctoral program.

    Distance education
    Any format of education provided to students who do not need to be physically present at an institution; previously materials were sent to students but now materials are provided via computer conferencing, video, Internet, and other electronic means.

    Distance learning
    Learning completed via a distance education format.

    Divergent assessment
    Assessment based on emphasizing the ability of the student to develop additional skills than those specified in a clearly defined task; opposed to convergent assessment.

    Varieties of different backgrounds of a group of individuals that often require using a variety of methods of instruction.

    Process of transferring files from one computer to a user’s computer.

    Dual mode delivery
    Education or training that can be provided either in a face-to-face format or in a distance education format.

    See Digital Versatile Disk.


    Economies of scale
    Attempts to reduce costs by increasing the number of items produced and sold or reducing the number of competing institutions.

    Educational software
    Software designed to facilitate teaching and learning.

    Learning activities based on any electronic format.

    Electronic discussion board
    Computer discussion area where individuals can post messages and other individuals will respond at a later time.



    Electronic mail (E-mail)
    A form of messages delivered over a network of communications computers; typically these messages are text but may include images and hyperlinks.

    Employability skills
    Skills that are essential and transferable to a variety of situations and are necessary for an individual to function in the 21st century workplace.

    Emergent Literacy
    The developing knowledge a child possesses of words and text that is gained prior to the onset of formal instruction.

    English Language Learners
    A student who speaks one or more languages other than English and is developing proficiency in English.

    A short written work on a topic.

    Process of assessing work completed by an individual, group, or institution with the aim of determining whether the individual, group, or institution has meet predetermined standards.

    Information offered to support a conclusion or judgment.

    Problem, task or other activity aimed at developing or improving a person’s skill or knowledge.

    Experiential learning
    Learning based on experience.

    External examiners
    Individuals from an outside institution who evaluate and verify that an institution has met predefined standards, often to act as a quality control mechanism.


    Individual who assists others in a learning process but does not act as a the primary source of knowledge; the facilitator acts as a guide in during individual or group learning activities.

    Responses provided to an individual while completing a task that are intended to guide the individual to s desired end.

    Field work
    1) Learning activities completed in real life settings as opposed to the classroom
    2) Process of data collection that requires researcher to leave the primary place of work.



    Final Assessment
    See summative assessment

    Flexible learning
    Format of education where students are allowed to determine their own time for study and the topic(s) they will examine.

    Schematic graphical representation of a sequence of operations, often used to illustrate a particular process.

    Ability to read text or converse with others accurately and quickly.

    Formative assessment
    Assessment used to identify an individuals current strengths and weaknesses relative to a knowledge or skill with the intention of improving one’s knowledge or skill.


    Activity of assigning a grade or mark to a completed assignment.

    Grading rubric
    Written explanation clarifying how individuals will be assessed on a given task.

    Written letter or spelling patterns.

    Group assessment
    Assessment based on a group as a whole rather than based on each individual’s work.



    Group formation
    Process of organizing learners into groups.

    Group work
    Learning activities requiring several students to work together.

    Guided Reading
    A practice whereby a teacher or instructor leads small groups of student through short texts to facilitate learning of fluency, comprehension, and problem-solving strategies.

    Statements specifying recommended procedures for completing a specific task.


    Halo effect
    The tendency to judge an person based on a previous formed favorable or unfavorable impression.

    Typically a sheet provided to all members of group that contains vital information, a task to be completed, or other guidelines for an assignment.

    The physical components of a computer including the monitor, keyboard, processor, disk drives, printers, disks, mouse, and other peripheral items.

    Links created in electronic documents (typically on webpages) that allow a person to access another document simply by clicking the text or image; text hyperlinks are generally underlined and often blue.



    Electronic documents that contain hyperlinks.


    Small pictures on computer screens that typically will access a program or function when activated by clicking with a mouse.

    Independent learning
    Learning completed by an individual without the assistance of an instructor.

    Independent Reading
    Activity of students reading material on their own.

    Individual differences
    Unique characteristics of individuals that have an impact on how they learn.



    Information technology (IT)
    Classification of work focusing on the management and processing of information using technology through databases, computer technology, or other means.

    Initiation phase
    In a lesson, this is the opening stage where the instructor begins the lesson.

    Inquiry-based learning
    Learning methodology where students are presented a problem to solve using knowledge and skills they have acquired or need to develop.

    Instant messaging
    A form of text communication where an individual types and sends the text to a user on another computer.

    Instructional design
    A process for systematically creating instructional materials and learning activities based on the goals of the instruction and the needs of the learners.

    Instructional support
    Resources provided to learners to facilitate the learning process

    Intellectual property rights
    Legal rights a person has to ideas they have created using their own minds

    Interactive methods
    In education, these are methods that have learners communicate with others or interact with some form of technology to receive feedback upon completing a task.

    Interactive Writing
    Activity where the instructor assists groups of students compose and write text together.

    Interest groups
    Associations of individuals who share sharing a common goal and work to promote their common interest.

    The name of the global network of computers accessed worldwide by individuals, businesses, education institutions, and government agencies.

    Internet service provider (ISP)
    A company that provides access to the Internet either via phone lines, cable television lines, or satellite connections.

    The characteristic of of software and hardware to function on multiple machines.

    A computer network that is accessible only be individuals within a particular organization.

    Ipsative assessment
    Assessment based on comparison of an individual’s current performance with the individual’s past performance.


    Specialized or technical language of a group or discipline.

    A script language that is used by websites to add interactive elements; it is used on webpages and is distinct from the computer language Java that does not need a webpage to operate.

    Journal Writing
    Practice of writing daily in a book or other source intended to record one’s ideas and experiences, create stories, or keep written records of events.

    JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) (jay-peg)
    1) A computer format for recording still, color images, particularly photographs with millions of colors.
    2) A computer files saved in this format.



    Just-in-time learning
    Learning completed at the time knowledge or skills are necessary to complete a specific task.

    Key skills
    Vital skills necessary for a task or to gain employment including literacy, mathematics, and basic computer skills

    Kolb`s learning cycle
    Learning model, presented by David Kolb, that identifies 4 stages in the learning cycle: concrete experience, observations and reflections, formation of abstract concepts and generalizations, and testing implications of concepts in new situations.

    Laboratory based education
    Educational format in which learners complete experiments in a laboratory in order to learn experimental methods or test hypotheses they are studying.

    Lateral thinking
    Attempting to solve a problem by using non-traditional methods in order to create and identify new concepts and ideas.

    Learning and teaching strategy
    Methodology and assumptions an instructor uses to ensure learning occurs.

    Learning Centers
    Designated classroom areas where students engage in specific activities to facilitate learning skills or knowledge; students typically work in learning centers without direct oversight by the instructor.



    Learning contract
    Agreement reached between instructor and student regarding the objectives to be reached in a particular learning period or activity.

    Learning groups
    Groups of individuals who work together on a specific task.

    Learning environment
    The place and setting where learning occurs; it is not limited to a physical classroom an includes the characteristics of the setting.

    Learning logs
    Recordings of the progress made by a learner with regards to acquiring a knowledge or skill.

    Learning object
    Item one is to learn from a learning activity or lesson.

    Learning objectives
    See Objectives

    Learning outcomes
    Statements indicating the end result for a learner following a learning activity; usually stated in what a person can observe the learner do at the end of a learning activity.

    Learning styles
    The various preferences and methods employed by learners in the process of learning.

    Lifelong learning
    Idea that learning can and does occur beyond the formal structure of an educational institution and occurs throughout one’s lifetime

    Computer program that automatically distribute an e-mail message to individuals who are part of a list; messages can usually only be sent or received by members of the list.

    Local area network (LAN)
    Network of computers covering a small area, typically a building or group of buildings.


    Managed Learning Environments (MLE)
    A system, typically computer-based, for organizing and evaluating information related to an educational endeavor, including the lessons, learning activities, and evaluations.

    Mapping competence
    Ability to organize and present information in a visual representation.

    1) Mass communication enterprises including print (newspapers, magazines) or broadcast (radio, television)
    2) Individuals employed in the communications industry.

    Adviser to a learner.

    Activity of advising and guiding a person through some task.



    Statistical procedure for integrating the results of different studies.

    Ability to reflect on one’s own thinking and learning.

    Higher-order ability to acquired and use competencies well in a variety of situations.

    Higher-order skill that allows other skills to be used and developed.

    Minimal competencies
    Lowest level of knowledge or skill necessary for engaging in a task or admittance into a program; see also competencies.

    Mission statement
    Statement articulation the primary aims of a group or institution.

    Model answers
    Samples of exemplary answers to questions or essays. Modular studies Program of study build on a set of modules.

    Teaching process that splits material or courses into modules to allow students flexibility in selecting modules to create a program of study

    A separate unit or selection of material that forms a coherent whole, but may be combined with other units.

    Monitoring achievement
    Tracking students’ progress towards achieving a learning goal.

    Motivational context
    The attempt to provide a setting where students are motivated to learn; can be achieved in various ways such as encouraging students to take responsibility for their own learning, being involved in selecting the topics for learning, or planning a lesson.

    MPEG (Moving Picture Expert Group) (em-peg)
    1) Standard format for compressing and storing digital video and audio.
    2) Any file using the MPEG format.

    Multiple Choice Questions
    Test format where students are provided several possible answers and must identify the best possible answer


    Native Language
    The first language learned and spoken by individuals based on their culture, country, and/or family.

    Attempt to connect with individuals in a similar area of work in order to engage in informal communication for mutual assistance or support.

    Networked Learning Environment (NLE)
    Learning environment based on a network of communication and information technologies.

    Non-print media
    Communication enterprises that do not produce paper publications, e.g. radio or television stations.



    Norm referencing
    Assessment based on a comparison of raw scores from a given assignment; opposed to criterion referencing.


    Objective tests
    Test based on answers that require students demonstrate a knowledge or skill exactly with no opportunity for judgment by the evaluator.

    Goals or aims of learning activity or lesson.

    Ability to remove personal feelings or presuppositions in assessing learning or other areas.

    Online learning
    Educational environment that exists in cyberspace using communications tools such as email, chatrooms readings on the Internet, and/or video conferencing.



    Open book examination
    Examination format that allows to access resource materials while completing the examination.

    Open learning
    Learning environment that has no formal requirements for admission. See also flexible learning

    Open learning materials
    Materials prepared for and open learning environment.

    Open-ended questions
    Questions that do not have predetermined answers and allow the responder to develop a unique, personal response.

    Optical mark reader (OMR)
    Computer device for reading examinations completed by students who fill in boxes with their responses.

    Oral skills
    Skill set related to speech.


    Approach or process of teaching.

    Peer assessment
    Assessment completed by other students or member in the same discipline.

    Peer learning
    Form of learning in which students are engaged in teaching each other material.

    Performance criteria
    Written standards used by an evaluator to judge whether an individual can perform a skill or has demonstrated knowledge.

    Performance indicators
    Behavioral or quantitative measures of the performance of a skill or knowledge.



    Personal development plan
    Document that identifies the current status and future plan of individual to achieve a personal or professional goal.

    Personal tutor
    A teacher who provides personal instruction to an individual student.

    Sounds of speech.

    The connection between symbols and sounds that form the basis of speech.

    Any use of the ideas or writings of another person without providing credit to the original author.

    Collection of work completed by a person over time to demonstrate abilities and competencies.

    Portfolio Assessment
    Assessment of a portfolio intended to judge the students development and current state of knowledge and skills.

    Positive feedback
    Comments intended to highlight positive elements of a person’s activities.

    Action of submitting a message to a virtual or electronic discussion board.

    Poster displays
    Demonstration of one’s work by placing materials and evidence on a large display for easy viewing by others.

    Practical work
    Activities completed in a course that are intended to show how theories and general knowledge are applied.

    Problem-based learning
    See inquiry based learning

    Process of learning
    Stages a learner passes through as they acquire knowledge or skills.

    Product of learning
    End result of a process of learning; what one has learned.

    The movement from one educational stage or developmental level to another.

    Psychomotor domain
    The physical aspect or muscular activity of experience or learning.

    Qualitative assessment
    Assessment based on personal views, experience or opinion of the reviewer.

    Quality assurance
    Internal and external processes for ensuring the quality of an object or institution maintains a desired level.

    Quality control
    Procedures used to ensure the desired level of quality and standards are met.

    Question bank
    A set of questions on a subject used either for study/review or for drawing questions used on an examination.

    The difference between the smallest and largest values in a distribution.

    Records of achievement
    Written records, either qualitative or quantitative, of a learner’s achievement during a period of learning.

    Redeemable failure
    Situation in which a student does not meet the necessary level but is still allowed to move to the next level.

    1) Commonly used source of information on a topic; see also resource.
    2) Documentation of sources referred to in a written document.



    Activity of a person to consider a past experience or event and the impact it has had.

    Reflective practice
    Practice of engaging in reflection to identify important elements of past events.

    Regional networks
    Groups of individuals involved in common area of interest or research who will within a limited geographical area.

    Rules, principles, codes, statutes, or laws formulated to control actions or individuals within a designated group.

    Process of practicing an action or activity in order to perfect it.

    The characteristic that same or similar results can be obtained through repeated experiments or tests.

    Remedial teaching
    Education activities aimed at removing deficiencies in knowledge or skills.

    Formal account of a current state of affairs.

    Research skills
    Set of abilities related to undertaking research, including strategies and tools for accessing and evaluating information.

    Material, either object, person, or location, that can be used to provide information.

    A short essay providing a critical commentary of a work.

    Role play
    Learning process in which participants act out the roles of other individuals in order to develop particular skills and to meet particular learning objectives.

    Written instructions or explanation clarifying how individuals should act or respond; see also grading rubric.


    Scaffolded Instruction
    Teaching methodology where teachers assist and guide students so that they can complete learning activities they could not do without support.
    Teachers resource website with all possible resources for teachers by Vishal Jain

    Self assessment
    Assessment completed by the learner him/herself to evaluate his/her own performance, strengths and weaknesses.

    Sight Vocabulary
    Words an individual can identify immediately without decoding.

    Computer instructions or data.



    Specified ends of learning all students are expected to attain.

    Strategic learning
    Learning methodology in which learners adapt their learning style to fit the needs of the assigned task.

    Student-centered learning
    Educational approach emphasizes the student’s responsibility for learning, interacting with teachers and other students, researching, and assessment by focusing on the student’s role in these activities.

    Study groups
    Groups assembled to work together to facilitate learning.

    Study skills
    Sets of skills associated with an individual’s ability to learn, including note taking, time management, and study planning.

    A condensed presentation of the main elements of some material intended to highlight the main points.

    Summative assessment
    Assessment typically completed at the end of a learning period with the aim of providing a final evaluation of individual’s mastery of a knowledge or skill.

    Surface learning
    Learning that emphasizes the memorization of details (rote learning); contrast with deep learning.

    Synchronous communication
    Communication that occurs in real time between participants who may or may not be in the same location. Contrasted with asynchronous communication.


    A classification or ordering into groups.

    Team assessment
    See group assessment

    Process where individuals engage in a cooperative effort to achieve a common objective.

    Written essay of variable length typically completed at the end of a baccalaureate or masters degree program.



    Time-constrained assessment
    Assessment based on an assignment that must be completed in a specified and limited amount of time, e.g. a timed examination.

    Time management
    Methods and techniques to ensure one makes the most effect appropriate use of his/her time.

    Record of a student’s courses and grades earned in those courses

    Transfer of learning
    Ability to apply knowledge and skills learned in one area to another context or problem.

    Transferable skills
    Skills possessed by an individuals that can be used in a variety of settings

    Effort to make processes and policies visible to outside interested parties, e.g. external examiners, quality control committees, and the general public.

    Instructor who provides instruction to one or more students outside of traditional classroom instruction.

    User groups
    Groups of individuals who meet to share information about technology and computer-related activities, often to aid each other solve problems.

    The degree to which an investigation accurately assesses the specific idea a researcher is investigating.

    Fundament beliefs and principles about what is important to a person, professional, or discipline.

    Video conference
    Discussion between two or more people who can see and hear each other using video equipment and transmissions over telephone lines or the Internet.

    Video files
    Video and audio images stored in computer files.



    Video streaming
    Technical process of accessing and viewing a video file directly by a user from a network computer without the need to download the entire file prior to viewing.

    Virtual discussion forums
    See electronic discussion boards.

    Virtual field trip
    Simulated field trip completed by visiting sites on the Internet.

    Virtual laboratory
    Computer-based learning experience where individuals are able to simulate experiments completed in a traditional laboratory.

    Virtual learning environments
    Computer- and Internet-based learning environments created using websites.

    Virtual universities
    Institutions of higher education that do not have a physical location but offer courses via online learning.

    Vocational courses
    Classes focusing on the development of trade or business skills.


    Web browser
    See Browser

    Individual charged with the responsibility for developing, managing and maintaining an Internet site.

    Web page
    Hypertext document that include text, images, and hyperlinks.

    A collection of web pages organized around one theme or managed by a single organization.



    Statistical process of determining a factor for an item to reflect the importance of the item as it relates to other items, e.g. one test item may be “weighted” to count twice as much as any other problem.

    Wide area network (WAN)
    A collection of local area networks (LANs) connected together over distance via telephone lines and/or radiowaves.

    Widening access
    Attempts to provide disadvantaged students maximum opportunities to participate in courses; attempts may include modifications of entry requirements or alternative teaching formats.

    Word length
    Total number of words required for an essay, thesis or written report.

    Word Wall
    A selected collection of words posted on a wall that is arranged in lists or groups to facilitate students familiarity with common sight words.

    Work-based learning
    Learning that occurs in work place and is usually completed under the supervision an employee of the company and a instructor connected to an educational institution; examples include co-op programs, student teaching and internships.

    Work experience
    Skills and knowledge gained from having been employed or during occupation-related assignments.

    Work load
    The amount of work assigned to a person during a specific time period.

    Work placement
    Placing students in specific jobs or employment settings to gain work-related knowledge and skills outside of traditional educational institutions.

    World Wide Web (WWW, the web)
    A sub-portion of the Internet where text, images, and video are accessed; what most people refer to as the Internet.


     Vishal Jain
    Editor in Chief



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    IMPROVING SCHOOL AND CLASSROOM DISCIPLINE   School personnel seeking to improve the quality of discipline in their schools and classrooms are encouraged to follow the guidelines implicit in the discipline research. These include: AT THE SCHOOL LEVEL: 1.      Engage school – and community-wide commitment to establishing and maintaining appropriate student... Comment
  6. Class Rules

    Kindergarten Rules   1.      WALK INSIDE! Why—to keep our body safe from bumps & bruises! 2.      USE AN INSIDE VOICE! Why—loud noises hurt our ears & it’s hard to think & learn! 3.      BE KIND TO OTHERS! Why—doing something kind feels GOOD to us & to our friends! 4.      FOLLOW... Comment

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