Critical thinking has become a hot topic in education today. Not only is it
introduced as a subject of study unto itself, the concept of critical thinking is applied in
all subject areas. It is currently taught as an integral learning tool for teachers in training
at schools of teacher education. Peter Facione states, “Education is nothing more, nor
less, than learning to think!”
The common feeling in education today is that students must become critical
thinkers in order to assimilate and accommodate information, thus becoming a true learner.
The ideas and activities set forth in the following pages will help elementary school students develop a variety of critical thinking skills in grades two through six. Teachers
using these activities will encourage and foster critical thinking among their students.
It may be easier to understand the concepts of critical thinking as it is discussed in
terms of student behavior and performance. Ferrett in Peak Performance (1997).
proposes the following:
Attributes of a critical thinker
asks pertinent questions
assesses statements and arguments
is able to admit a lack of understanding or information
has a sense of curiosity
is interested in finding new solutions
is able to clearly define a set of criteria for analyzing ideas
is willing to examine beliefs, assumptions, and opinions and weigh them against facts
listens carefully to others and is able to give feedback
sees that critical thinking is a lifelong process of self assessment
suspends judgment until all facts have been gathered and considered
looks for evidence to support assumption and beliefs
is able to adjust opinions when new facts are found
looks for proof
examines problems closely
is able to reject information that is incorrect or irrelevant
The term has become so widely used that critical thinking may mean different
things depending on its context and application. Some useful definitions appear on the
web site “Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Project” Longview Community
College; Definitions of Critical Thinking .
Critical thinking is the development of cohesive and logical reasoning patterns.
Critical thinking is deciding rationally what to or what not to believe.
The purpose of critical thinking is to achieve understanding, evaluate view points, and
solve problems. Since all three areas involve the asking of questions, we can say that
critical thinking is the questioning or inquiry we engage in when we seek to understand,
evaluate, or resolve.
Critical thinkers: distinguish between fact and opinion; ask questions; make detailed
observations; uncover assumptions and define their terms; and make assertions
based on sound logic and solid evidence.
No matter what definition the teacher wishes to use for critical thinking, the
underlying idea is that teachers can teach students to think.
Thinking is a skill … it can be taught.
Thirteen essential thinking skills:
Looking for Assumptions
Collecting and Organizing Data
Finally, the teacher must understand Bloom’s Taxonomy of educational objectives
[See appendix]. Bloom lists these “abilities” in ascending order:
I. Knowledge: remembering of previously learned material; recall (facts or whole
theories); bringing to mind
II. Comprehension: grasping the meaning of material; interpreting
(explaining or summarizing); predicting outcome and effects
III. Application: ability to use learned material in a new situation; apply rules, laws,
IV. Analysis: breaking down into parts; understanding organization, clarifying,
V. Synthesis: ability to put parts together to form a new whole; unique communication;
create abstract relations
VI. Evaluation: ability to judge value for purpose; base on criteria; support judgment
Ways to Encourage Critical Thinking
Awards: Good Question – Good Thinking – I Found The Answer
Three ways to improve critical thinking is by encouraging students to ask good
questions, practice good thinking, and find answers using resources. I have created a
small trophy and certificate for students who exhibit each of these positive critical
thinking behaviors. These awards may be used in all subject areas and at anytime. For
example, when a students asks a “Good Question”, the trophy goes on the student’s desk
for the day, or until another student earns it. Also, the student is given a paper certificate
to be taken home.
Good Question Award
A “Good Question” is a question that shows the student is thinking about the
subject, concepts, or ideas under study. Generally, these questions are in the higher areas
of Bloom’s Taxonomy; application (in the lower grades), analysis, synthesis, or
evaluation. A “Good Question” may also show creativity.
As the award is used, students will begin to identify “Good Questions” posed by
fellow students and direct the teacher to give the award.
Good Thinking Award
“Good Thinking” reveals that the student is entering the higher thought
processes; analysis, synthesis, or evaluation. “Good thinking” may also entail solving a
multi-step problem or coming up with an original idea or creative way to solve a problem.
Of course, the teacher must challenge the students with questions that require
higher order reasoning.
I Found The Answer Award
The “I Found The Answer” award is given when a student has taken the initiative
to look for and find an answer using a resource other than the text. This award will
motivate students to find answers, rather than simply accepting “I Don’t Know” as the
answer. Students through application and practice will learn to use the dictionary,
almanac, thesaurus, encyclopedia, index, glossary, maps, and the internet. Also, students
should learn to ask people for answers.
The best questions for research come out of daily classroom lessons and discussions in
all subject areas. The teacher may also pose a “Question of the Day” to be researched.
In order to use these awards to their highest potential, the teacher must be
competent and comfortable in asking higher order questions, accepting more than one
possible answer to a question, and practice not answering all student questions.
Games and Puzzles
Games can be a useful learning tool. While playing games students may apply
their knowledge and skills while interacting in a small group. Most games involve
planning, observation, logic and reasoning, calculations of chance, observing, using
information, and creating and testing possible solutions. All of these “game skills” are
components of critical thinking.
Puzzles come in a wide variety of types from purely academic, which rely on knowledge
or reasoning skills, to those which require acute observation, such as a jigsaw puzzle. No matter what the puzzle, the one commonality of all puzzles is they require critical thinking.
Why jigsaw puzzles? In order to complete a jigsaw puzzle students must observe
and compare size, shape, color, and patterns; use trial and error to complete the task; and
develop visual memory. Students experience working together toward a common goal,
and participate in an activity that requires days or weeks to complete.
SCAMPER is an excellent classroom activity which encourages students to think
creatively. In this activity the student looks at an object and develops original ideas
about the object and different uses of the object. SCAMPER is an acronym which helps
direct students in this process.
Substitute some aspect of it
Combine elements with something else
Adapt or Alter an aspect of it
Minify or Magnify an aspect of it
Put some part of it to other uses
Eliminate an aspect of it
Reverse an aspect of it
Scamper may be used as an independent, small group, or whole class activity.
Students must be allowed to brainstorm ideas, making it clear that all ideas must be
accepted. I usually have the students work independently for 5 – 7 minutes, then share
their ideas with the class. Teachers may use small groups and develop a scoring system,
giving a point for each idea that no other group has written. [See Appendix for blank
Visit “Robert Alan Black’s Creativity Challenges”, Creativity Challenge Table of Contents,
an excellent site of 52 challenges which will increase your creativeness, expand your creative thinking skills, spark your creativity, and encourage you to learn fun ways to tap and improve your creativity.
What Do They Have in Common?
A simple activity that promotes critical thinking and creativity is listing 2 words
and asking “What do they have in common?” While students may easily see differences
among items, finding similarities will be much more challenging. This activity also
promotes oral communication and explaining your answer. This may done individually,
with a partner, small groups, or even as a whole class brainstorming session. This
activity is part of my students’ first assignments as they come in the morning. Students
are asked to write an answer and then we discuss their responses as a whole class.
Teachers should accept any answer that may be explained as a commonality,
being sure students only deal with the attributes of the items and not what they could be
or do. For example, for “bell and whistle” I would accept both are “made of metal” or
“make a sound” but would not allow “I own both of them.”
For a real challenge, have students write names of objects on a small piece of
paper and put them all in a bag. Each day select a pair of words and challenge the
students to recognize “What do they have in common?”
“What Do they have in common?” may be taken one step farther. Using a pair of
words, the commonality must be expressed in one word. Students must think of multiple
meanings and multiple uses of the words.
For example: clothes and money > change record and down > break
The game TriBond lists three words and the player must recognize what word is common
among all three.
Words Chains is an oral language game that encourages critical thinking by
requiring students to think about items and classify items into categories. The teacher
gives a category, and selects a volunteer for the first word. Then each next word must
start with the ending letter of the preceding word.
Category – Things found in the ocean
fisH > HerrinG > Ghost craB > BasS > SanD > Darkness
To speed the game along, change the category once either group is unable to quickly answer.
Words Chains may be played in a variety of ways: one vs. one, small group vs.
small group, half of class vs. half of class, or whole group.
Scoring: If you wish to keep score:
1 Point – correct response
-1 Point – incorrect or repeated response or unable to answer
Words Chains encourages creativity as students try to connect words they know
into a classification. I use Word Chains as a short filler when the class is waiting in line
and as a whole group thinking activity.
Word Chains Category Ideas
Something you would find in (at) a(n)
school grocery store garage carnival mall doctor’s office laboratory hospital
kitchen sports stadium restaurant campsite beach television station barber shop
desert skating rink art class purse computer toy store library car
post office amusement park arcade museum cruise ship National Park
fire station rodeo zoo
things made of: glass, plastic, metal, wood, cloth
things that are soft, hard, fragile, strong, bendable, smooth, heavy, light
things that are bigger than …, smaller than …, heavier than …
things that are connected with a holiday
subject area or the topic under study
geographic names people’s jobs cars plants
electronic devices transportation furniture clothing
things you wear inventions names plants
capitalized words games/toys music/songs animal
Words with Multiple Meanings
A critical thinker looks at words and realizes many words may be used in
different ways. Introducing this skill to students will improve their reading and writing.
When discussing word meanings the concepts of literal and figurative meanings must be
taught. [See Appendix for word list]
Word A Day – Put a new word on the board each morning. Allow students time to
think about or look up the word. Discuss later in the day.
Spelling or Vocabulary Lists – Look at the list (word) and ask students what words
could have more than one meaning.
New Words – As new words are encountered in class, list them on the blackboard.
When you have that extra minute ask students if they remember the meanings or
can use them in a sentence.
Keep this ongoing list in a corner of the blackboard. Do not erase the words daily.
Erase the “old” words when the list becomes more than 5 – 7 words. As the
“old” words come down you may add them to a Word Wall, a writing bulletin board, or
make a small card for each and put them in a box for future use.
“Acronyms” is a linguistic critical thinking activity which requires some
creativity. Students must create their own meanings for common acronyms. Acronyms
are words made up of the initial letters of its meaning, such as SCUBA, self-contained
underwater breathing apparatus and SNAFU, situation normal all fouled up. Acronyms
may be pronounced letter by letter, such as CPR. Initialism is the term for an
abbreviation pronounced as the names of the individual letters.
This idea originated when I was wearing a shirt that said “NYC” in my fourth
grade class. Most students did not know what the letters represented and started coming
up with their own ideas. Their responses included; “Nice Young Children”, “Never Yell
Chocolate”, “Nine Yummy Cookies”, and my favorite, “No You Cant”.
These abbreviations are everywhere and are part of our everyday life. They are
businesses (ATT, IBM, TWA), government agencies (NASA, CIA, FEMA), television
networks (ABC, CNN, ESPN), organizations (NATO, UN, NOW), items (BMW, CRT,
VCR), jobs (EMT, CPA, RN), and a mainstay in sports (RBI, TKO, TD).
WWW Worldwide Web AOL America Online
ESP Extra Sensory Perception ASAP As Soon As Possible
CIT Counselor In Training AKC American Kennel Club
PDQ Pretty Darn Quick GPA Grade Point Average
GNP Gross National Product ZIP Zone Improvement Plan
SRO Standing Room Only RSVP Respondez S’il Vous Plait
CD Compact Disc DJ Disc Jockey
AM Amplitude Modulation FM Frequency Modulation
TBA To Be Announced ETA Estimated Time of Arrival
AKA Also Known As YMCA Young Men’s Christian Association
RPM Revolutions Per Minute MPH Miles Per Hour
ATV All Terrain Vehicle SWAK Sealed With A Kiss
IQ Intelligence Quotient CPA Certified Public Accountant
GOP Grand Old Party CPR Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
CIA Central Intelligence Agency DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid
TNT Trinitrotoluene RAM Random Access Memory
VHS Very High Speed URL Uniform Resource Locator
VIP Very Important Person HMO Health Maintenance Organization
RN Registered Nurse ACLU American Civil Liberties Union
POW Prisoner Of War VISTA Volunteers In Service To America
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
101 Fresh and Fun Critical Thinking Activities cross-curricular 128 p. $12.95 Gr. 1-3
180 Icebreakers to Strengthen Critical Thinking Skills and Problem-Solving Skills 96 p.
$9.95 Middle Grades
A Case of Red Herrings 32 story mysteries per book $12.95 Gr. 4-9, 7 – up
Bob Barlow’s Book of Brain Boosters 125 Writing Prompts That Develop Creative
and Critical Thinking Skills 64 p. $9.95 Gr. 4-8
Brain Teasers “Sharpen students critical thinking skills with brain teasing activities.”
80 p. $9.95 Gr. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 3-5, 5-8 USA 4-8, Geography,
20th Century, Pre-Geometry, Math Problem Solving, Pre-Algebra
Classroom Quickies Over 25 verbal, spatial, mathematical, and figural activities in
each book. $8.95 Levels: Beginning, Intermediate, Advanced
Clever Lateral Thinking Puzzles Harshman, Edward J. Sterling Publishing Co. 1997
99 puzzles The answer/story ending is given, you must deduce how/why it
makes sense Ask only Yes/No questions Clue questions are given
Critical Thinking Activities in Patterns, Imagery, Logic Dale Seymour and Ed Beardslee
$15.50 Gr. K-3, 4-6, 7-12
Dr. DooRiddles John H. Doolittle Associative Reasoning Activities $9.95
Gr. K-2, 4-7, 8 – adult
Hang-Ups Linda Lew Dollard Ideas to Ignite Creativity and Imagination Gr. 4-8
Imagination Works Hands-on reproducible activities 48 p. $8.95 Gr. 3-6
In All Probability Investigations in probability and statistics 109 pp. Gr. 3-6
Instant Math Games That Teach 38 reproducible games $9.98 Gr. 2-5
Investigative Patterns: Symmetry and Tessellations $24.95 Gr. 5-8
Set of 4 Mirrors $4.50
Language Smarts Sharpen students’ reading comprehension, vocabulary, word use,
verbal sequencing and classification, spelling through eight different types of language
activities. 100 activities per book $11.95 Gr. 2-5, 4-7
Light Up Their Minds Series “Provides students with the opportunity to think about and
use, not just recall, the facts they have learned” 48 p. $7.95 Gr. 2-5 and
Middle Grades Language, Math, Science, Social Studies, Creative Thinking,
Word Power, Self-Concept, The Seasons
Logical Thinking Skills Challenging puzzles and fun activities to sharpen thinking skills
96 p. $9.95 Middle School
Look! Listen! Think! “Activities to exercise students thinking skills” $7.95 Gr. 2-3, 4-5, 6-7
Mastermind, Exercises in Critical Thinking Reproducible activities
Gr. K-3 120 p. $9.95 Gr. 4-6 88 p. $10.95
Mathematics Their Way: Beyond the Book Gr. K-4 40 math projects
Mental Aerobics 442 Thinking Workouts “Teacher directed mind puzzlers from all
areas of the curriculum” 96 p. $9.95 Middle School
Mind Benders Classic deductive reasoning puzzles 32 p. $8.95 Gr. K-2, 2 – up, 6 – up
Plexers “Each puzzle is a pictorial code for a common phrase, an idiomatic expression;
or the name of a person, place, or thing.” 40 p. $9.95 Gr. 4 – up
Powerthink “Gives students the tools they need to develop solid critical thinking skills.
As they work together in small groups, they will learn to evaluate information,
differentiate between fact and opinion, and look at both sides of an issue.” 64 p.
$6.95 Grades 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Scratch Your Brain Where It Itches Sharpen problem solving skills and improve
understanding of basic math concepts 60-122 brain teasers per book $9.95
Gr. 1-3, 3-6, 7-9 $10.95 Pre-Algebra – AlgebraII, Geometry
Think-A-Grams Large format for bulletin board or wall display $11.95 Gr. 5-7, 6-9, 8-up
Visual Discrimination: Exploring and Solving Picture Patterns $8.95 Gr. 1-12
Center for Critical Thinking Classroom Material Resources Lesson Plans
Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Longview Community College
Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts Essay Peter A. Facione 1997
Critical Thinking Books and Software Vendor Online Catalog
Dr. Labush’s Links To Learning Over 1200 Links for Teachers, Parents, and Students
Foundation for Critical Thinking Events Library Resources Bookstore
If X, Then Y: Teaching Critical Thinking Skills Gwynn M. Powell From Camping Magazine
January 2000 http://www.findarticles.com/m1249/1_73/59176764/p1/article.jhtml
Just Think Media Literacy Education http://www.justthink.org/
Learn A Little More Original worksheets and Activities Printable
Robert Alan Black’s Creativity Challenges 52 challenges
Strategy List: 35 Dimensions of Critical Thought
Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking M. Neil Browne, Stuart M.
Keeley (1997) Prentice Hall
Big Tools for Young Thinkers Susan Keller-Mathers, Kristin Puccio (2000) Prufrock Press
Ellis, D. Becoming a Master Student 8th Rev edition (1998) Houghton Mifflin College
Fact vs. Opinion. (teaching of critical thinking) Joan Novelli Instructor March, 1999
Ferrett, Sharon. Peak Performance : Success in College & Beyond 2nd edition (1996)
Halpern, D.F. (1996). Thought and Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking
(3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Maiorana, Victor P. Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum: Building the Analytical
Classroom. Eric Clearinghouse 1992
Norris, Stephen P. “Synthesis of Research on Critical Thinking. Educational Leadership,
v 42 n 8 May 1985. 40-45.
Toor, Ruth & Hilda K. Weisburg. Puzzles, Patterns (5 Problem Solving: Creative
Connections to Critical Thinking). 176p. Library Learning Resources. 1999.
Games and Puzzles
Attribute Blocks Gr. K – 12 Desk Set $22.95 Pocket Set $14.95 Activity Books
Graphing circles sold separately
Battleship Fr. 3 – up 2 player Players use coordinate graphing on separate game boards
to find and destroy ships.
Brick by Brick Gr. 3 – up 5 3D brick pieces from symmetrical walls
pictured on 60 puzzle cards $12.50
Checkers, Chess, Chinese Checkers
Clue Gr. 4 – up $23.99 and Clue Junior Gr. 1-3 $14.99 Use logic and reasoning
Connect Four Gr. 2 – up Vertical Checkers make 4-in-a-row $19.99
Eye-Cue Puzzles Gr. K-1, 2-4, 3 – up Multisolution 8 piece puzzles improve
visual thinking and problem solving $15.95 four puzzles per set
Graphing Circles 6 circles &14.95
Izzi Gr. 3 – up Multisolution puzzle Match 64 diamond-shaped cards edge to edge
4 colors per card $6.25
Mancala Gr. 1 – up Strategy game with few rules Several Versions $10.00-$15.00
Mastermind Gr. 3 – up $14.99
Outburst and Outburst Jr. Gr. 3 – up Guessing game using categories
Othello Gr. 3 – up Strategy game 2 Player $19.95
Pattern Blocks Gr. K – up Many models, books, and activity cards available
Parquetry Blocks Gr. K-2 Many models, books, and activity cards available
Pentominoes Gr. K – up Many models, books, and activity cards available
Scattergories Gr. 4 – up Players or teams think of words within categories
starting with a selected letter
Shape by Shape Gr. 3 – up 14 Shape pieces – 60 challenge cards
“Hint to Solutions” on back $12.50
Slide 5 Gr. 3 – up 5 in a row strategy game 2 player $19.95
Tangrams Gr. K – up [Also Tangoes] Many models, books, and activity cards available
Tessellation Shapes Gr. 3 – up Geometric, Letter, and Curlie Tessellations
Tessellation Pack 180 Pieces $45.40 Templates, Set of 10 $24.50
30 Second Mysteries Gr. 5 – up 2 or more players
Traverse Gr. 3 – up Like Chinese Checkers with several thinking twists 2-4 players $19.95
TriBond Gr. 5 – up Game asks “What do 3 things have in common?” Home Game
CD Rom Play online TriBond® http://www.tribond.com/
Tri-Ominoes Gr. 2 – up 2-6 players 3 sided dominoes $9.95
24 Game Gr. 4-12 1 or more players 8 different versions cover mathematics and
Algebraic Thinking $21.95
Visual Brainstorms Gr. 6 – up 100 of the science, perception and lateral thinking puzzles
Solutions on back $12.25
Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego? Gr. 4 – up Geography mystery $23.99
Carmen USA Gr. 3 – up 2 to 4 players
My Favorite Companies
Discount School Supply www.earlychildhood.com/Store/ 800-627-2829
General education supplies – arts and crafts
ETA/Cuisenaire Manipulatives, science materials, and teacher resources
www.etacuisenaire.com 800-445-5985 Math and Science
MPI www.educationalideas.com 800-444-1773
Math, Science, and Technology
Pearson Learning [Dale Seymour Publications] www.pearsonlearning.com/
800-526-9907 Many unusual and creative resources Math in literature books
Words with Multiple Meanings
accent account ace act add address advance age air alarm application ask associate attention
average atmosphere baby back bail balance band bar bare base bat batter bear bearing beat
bed behind bill bit bite blaze blind block blow bluff board body bolt bond bore bottom bound
bow box brace brand brush buckle burn button cabinet cable cake call cap capital cardinal cart
case cast cause cement center chain chamber chance change charge charter check chip choice
chorus circle circuit clash claw clear club coat code colony column compact compass condition
conduct cool copy cord course court crack crane credit crest crop cross crown cry culture cure
current cushion cut dab dash date dead deal deck decoy degree deposit design detail dial
diamond die dip direct double draft draw dress drop dry element entry even excuse express
eye face fair fall family fan fast fault feature feel fence field figure file fill filter find finish
fit fix flare flat flight flock flop flush focus foil follow foot force forge form foul frame free
front fund fuse gag game gauge gear general get give grade grain ground gutter
habit hail hall hand harbor hard head heart heel help hit hitch hold hollow home hood hook horn
house hull ice inflate interest iron issue jack jam jar jingle join joint judge jump junior keep key
kick kill king knock knot land lark last launch law lead league leave let level lick lie life
light line litter live load lock lodge long look lot low mad make mark mask master mat matter
mean meet melt mess mind mine minor minute miss mix model mold motion mount move
name natural near need needle negative nest net neutral nose note notice
number nurse object odd open operate order organ outfit pace pack pad page palm panel
paper park part particular party pass patch pay peak peel peep perform pick picture piece pile
pin pinch pipe pit pitch place plain plane plate play plot plug point pool
pore positive post pound power practice preserve press pressure pride print project
pump punch push put quarter race raise ram range rank rare rate rattle reach read ready
reason record reel reference reflect register relief reserve resource respect rest retain
return reverse review ride rig right ring rise rock roll root rope rough round run
safe sail saw scale school score scrape scratch screen seal season senior dense service set settle
shade shaft shake shape sharp sheet shield ship shock short shot shoulder show
shower side sight sign sink sit skate skin skip slide slip slow slug smart smooth snap soft soil
sole solid sound space spell spin spirit spot spread spring square squash squeeze stab stage
stagger stake stalk stamp stand staple state station steady stem stern stick stiff still stir
stock stone strike string strip stroke stuff subject suit support suspend sweep switch system
table tackle tag take tap taste tear temple tend tender tense thread tick tie tight time title toast
touch trace track trade trail train trip turn unit upset use vein vision voice
walk ward warrant wash watch wave wax way wear web well will wind word work wound
What Do They Have in Common?
science / math machine / skates van / truck helmet / hat Florida / California
country / state tire / hula hoop snow / ice cream bell / whistle hose / tunnel
high school / college scissors / knife pie / doughnut curtain / tablecloth door / window
foot / hand mountain / hill guitar / banjo floor / carpet string / rubber band
bottle / can cup / bowl dollar / lettuce frog / fish frame / fence
piano / telephone apple / orange egg / peanut elevator / escalator videotape / CD
whale / clown car / microwave pencil / chalk television / radio ghost / Superman
pen / pencil shoe / sock banana / candy bar car / plane watch / ring
gloves / scissors eye / ear chair / desk potato / banana cow / goat
water / paint lamp / microwave milk / juice letter / number backpack / purse
cat / tree tear / ocean ant / grasshopper map / globe fruit / vegetable
drum / guitar wood / metal chair / stool candle / light bulb plug / key
book / magazine flag / stop sign eagle / fish water / glass piano / telephone
wood / orange ocean / lake milkshake / soda wind /rain prize / gift
carpet / tablecloth road / river tape / glue bone / tooth bag / pocket dog / spider
hand / foot piano / drum cake / donut panda / penguin state / county battery / magnet
alligator / manatee girl / fish car / bike cheese / yogurt clock / sun house / tent
radio / telephone vacuum / toaster kite / yo-yo hurricane / tornado battery / key
feather / fin theater / stadium tree / bush scream / whisper fingernail / turtle shell
towel / napkin song / poem salad / sandwich key / pliers earth / sun
second / century flower / fruit turtle / tadpole pillow / catalog snore / cry